海外大学字幕プロジェクト

Ghent Universityゲント大学
期 間
2018年11月5日~2018年12月10日
参加人数
32名
作品名
『限界突破応援団』
JVTA 担当講師
石井清猛、ジェシー・ナス
大学からのメッセージ
アンドレアス・ニーハウス教授

アンドレアス・ニーハウス教授

Prof. Dr. Andreas Niehaus

学生たちが「海外大学字幕プロジェクト」を通じて身につける知識と経験は、彼らの将来の研究に必ず役に立つでしょう。彼らが日本文化をより理解し、世界中の日本語を学ぶ学生らと交流することを期待します。

The Global Universities Subtitling Project will give our students the opportunity to build up expertise and experience in a potential future work field. My hope is that they will also learn more about Japanese culture and exchange their thoughts with students in Japanese studies around the world.

【12/10】“壁”を突破した学生たち! ベルギーの観客にこの映画を届けよう

Ghent University’s students break through the language barrier to deliver the film to a Belgian audience

最終講では、学生たちが意見を交わしながら字幕のブラッシュアップに取り組みます。

学生たちが発表する字幕案は、第1講の頃と比べてより洗練されたものに。例えば、主人公・シドウがイギリス留学に旅立つ先輩・アキコに“Before you go, I want to tell you something.”と英語字幕で語るシーン。「シドウは“イギリスに行っても頑張ってほしい”という思いを伝えたいのだから、“tell”ではなく“say”の方が良いのでは?」と、登場人物のセリフに込められたニュアンスを伝える言葉選びを提案しました。

また、シドウが“超えたい”と願う男・ジンクについて語る“Jinku always faced the people he wanted to support.”という字幕については、「“People”を“those”に替えた方がいい。それと、字幕が長いので改行した方が読みやすいですね」と、細やかな修正を加えていきました。

日本の短編映画に英語字幕をつける6回のセッションで、「文化や言語を超えて伝える力」を飛躍的に高めた学生たち。物語やキャラクター、場面によって言葉を選べるようになりました。この後、字幕がついた映画『限界突破応援団』は彼らが開催する上映会で、ベルギーの観客に届けられます。
In the last class, students discussed how to further improve their subtitles.

The translation that the students worked on during the class was by far more polished than the one they made in the beginning of the course. For example, in one scene Shido (the main character) is talking to Akiko, a senior member of the cheering squad who is about to leave to study abroad, and wants to wish her luck during her stay in England. In the original subtitles he started off by saying “Before you go, I need to tell you something.” However, the word “tell” implies sharing or revealing some new information, whereas what Shido actually says amounts to “do your best in England.” So, after some discussion, students decided to go with “Before you go, I need to say something.”

Another small but important change was made to a line describing Jinku, the legendary cheerleader that Shido strives to beat. In one scene Shido points out to his fellow squad members that “Jinku always faced people he wanted to support” in the original subtitles, but the students came to the conclusion that “Jinku always faced those he wanted to support” is a better phrase. They also noticed that subtitle was too long for one line and so they needed to put in a line break.

Over the course of six subtitling classes, the students have greatly developed their skills to convey meaning transcending languages and cultures. They have learned how to choose the right words depending on the story, characters, and context of the scene. Next year Genkai Toppa Oendan will be screened with English subtitles in Belgium at an event held by the students.

【12/3】言葉の壁を突破するために! 学生たちは作品の背景にあるカルチャーも汲み取る

Breaking Through the Language Barrier: Understanding the Culture Behind the Film

第5講では作品後半の字幕翻訳に取り組みます。

これまでの演習を通じて基本的なスキルを身につけた学生たちは「余計な“…”(三点リーダ)はいらない」「ニュアンスを出すために別の言葉に替えた方がいいのでは」など、細やかな点について活発に意見を交換。学び始めた頃と比べて、的確に字幕翻訳を進めます。

それでも、彼らが頭を悩ませたのが応援団団長・ダイゴの「『狙いうち』!」というセリフです。山本リンダの楽曲『狙いうち』(1973)に乗せて主人公らが演舞を披露するシーンの始まりに叫ばれるこの言葉を、学生たちは曲名だと知らずに翻訳していたことが判明。そこで、クラスでは原曲を調べ、聴いてみることに。映像翻訳は作品の背景にあるカルチャーを汲み取ることも必要不可欠だということを学びました。

また、「突破するぞ!」とダイゴが気合の声を上げるシーンの翻訳も焦点に。本作のタイトルは『限界突破応援団』。ここで“突破”という言葉をどう訳すかが、この後、自分たちで付ける英語版タイトルにも大きな影響を与えそうです。

学生たちの字幕翻訳も今がクライマックス。言葉の壁を突破するため、字幕のブラッシュアップを続けます。
For the fifth class, the students translated the second half of the film.

After learning the basics of translating through exercises, the students discussed and exchanged opinions about the use of ellipses and changing words to get closer to the nuance of the original. Their subtitles have become more accurate compared to when they first started.

Still, one thing they had trouble with was the “Nerai Uchi!” line said by Daigo, the group’s leader. These words were taken from Linda Yamamoto’s song, “Nerai Uchi” (1973), a very popular song back in the 70’s, and were used at the beginning of their performance. However, it was clear that the students translated this line without knowing it was originally a song title. They then looked it up and listened to the original song, learning that in visual media translation, understanding the culture behind the film is invaluable knowledge for better subtitles.

Another difficult line to translate was the “Toppa suru zo!” line when Daigo raises his voice to cheer. This line is particularly important because it contains the word “toppa”, which is also found in the title of the movie. How this word is translated will also influence the translation of the title of the film.

The students are now approaching the end of their subtitling assignment for this film. In order to break through the language barrier, they’ll continue to improve the quality of their subtitles.

【11/26】登場人物の感情を訳にのせるには? 少しずつ変わる学生たちの英語字幕

How to express characters’ emotions through translation? The student’s subtitles slowly evolve

第4講では『限界突破応援団』前半の訳のブラッシュアップへ。登場人物たちが話す日本語に向き合っていきます。

より視聴者を意識して訳を考えるようになった学生たち。だからこそ、日本語独特の言い回しや文化の違いに頭を悩ませます。例えば、「2年生」「3年生」と数字で表す日本の高校の学年も、英語ではJunior、Seniorと表記を変える必要性があると意見が。しかし一方で、「ヨーロッパ圏ではJunior、Seniorと表す文化が ないから、やはりSecond、Thirdの方が良いのでは?」という声も挙がります。

学生たちは自分たちが取り組んだ訳についてクラスで意見を交換。登場人物たちの生の感情を訳にのせる方法についても話し合いました。

前回“Do you understand.”と訳されていた「分かったか!」も“Got it?!”に変わるなど、少しずつ、観客に刺さる言葉に変化する学生たちの英語字幕。引き続き、物語後半の訳に取り組んでいきます。
The assignment for the fourth class was to brush up the subtitles for the first half of the film they created earlier in the course. During the class, they discussed their assignment with the teachers, focusing on the fine nuances of the original Japanese lines.

By the fourth class students have learned to keep the viewers in mind when working on the subtitles. They spent much of the class trying to figure out how to translate phrases that imply, rather than directly express, their meaning and how to tackle small cultural differences. For instance, while in Japanese you would usually refer to a student’s year using a numeral - “first year student,” “second year student,” etc., in American English, words like “junior” or “sophomore” are just as common. At the same time, European viewers might not be familiar with these terms, so the group agreed on using numerals instead.

Students discussed each other’s translations in the class, exploring ways to fully convey characters’ emotions in their translations.

For example, one line “Wakatta ka?” that students originally translated, rather flatly, as ”Do you understand?”, was revised to “Got it?!” which better expresses speaker’s emotions and leaves a stronger impression on the viewer.

For the next class, students will work on the second half of the film.

【11/19】“伝わる”とはどういうことか? 学生たちは細やかなセリフも丁寧に訳し始める

Conveying the Message: The Students Carefully Start Subtitling Each Line

第3講では、5つのグループに分かれた学生たちが、『限界突破応援団』前半のセリフの翻訳を発表し、意見を交わしていきます。

「日本語のニュアンスを英語に訳すのに苦労した」と語る学生たち。まずは訳文を、字幕のように該当シーンにつけて見ていきます。すぐに分かったのが、ただ言葉をなぞって英訳しても、そのキャラクターが話しているようには映らないということです。例えば、先輩の応援団員が主人公・シドウらに「分かったか!」と激を飛ばすシーンも“Do you understand?”では十分に伝わりません。また、日常会話では登場しないような言葉も、学生たちの訳には多く使われています。

そこで、学生たちは講師らのフィードバックも参考にしながら、登場人物の生の感情を表現するような言葉のトーンやニュアンスに着目。「あのね――」といった細やかなセリフも丁寧に訳し、ドラマチックなシーンは、ドラマチックなままに、英語字幕で伝わるよう取り組みました。

“伝わる翻訳”とは何かを考え始めた学生たちは、次は作品前半のセリフのブラッシュアップに臨みます。
In the third class, the students, divided into 5 groups, presented their subtitles for the first half of the Genkai Toppa Ouendan film and exchanged opinions about their translations.

They had a hard time translating the nuances of the Japanese language into English. First, they looked at the scenes of the film that they subtitled. What they soon found out was: simply replicating and translating the words are not enough to reflect the characters’ voices on screen. For example, there is a scene where one of the senior members in the group asks main character Shido and the others if they understand what he is saying, using the phrase “Wakkatta ka!”. This is closer to “Got it?!”, but the original translation was “Do you understand?”, which is simply not enough to convey the rough nuance of the original. In addition, there were many words in the students’ translations that are not usually found in daily conversation.

From there, the students focused on capturing the tone, nuance and characters’ emotions in their subtitles after receiving feedback from the instructors. From brief to dramatic lines, they carefully translated them into English subtitles that would convey the message of the film and characters.

Now having started thinking about this important aspect of subtitling, they will continue this challenge for the second half of the film.

【11/12】世界でも類を見ない日本の「応援団」 ストーリーを理解するために学生たちは…

November 12th: Cheering squad – a phenomenon unique to Japanese culture. Students dig into the analysis of the story

第2講では『限界突破応援団』の文化的背景やストーリーを理解した上で、 作品の流れと深く関わるセリフの翻訳を行います。

世界でも類を見ない日本の「応援団」という文化。日本のコンテンツが大好きな学生たちの間でも知る人はほとんどいません。そこで、クラスでは「応援団」をテーマとしたマンガ作品を概観。「甲子園」「最強」「四天王」など独自の言葉が行き交う世界観があることを知りました。

続いて、学生たちが宿題として取り組んできた、作品を一言で表す「ログライン」の発表へ。「応援団が野球部の勝利に貢献する話」といった、試合に焦点を当てた要約が並ぶ中「主人公のシドウが“応援王”ジンクを超える話では?」という意見が挙がり、ディスカッションは加熱。ストーリーを理解するためには、誰が主人公で、何を目的とするのかに注目する必要があることを学びました。

作品への理解をより深めた学生たちは、登場人物同士の会話の翻訳を次々と発表。言葉通りに訳していては伝わらない映像翻訳の難しさも実感した上で、引き続き、セリフの翻訳に取り組みます。
During the second class of the course, students discussed the cultural context and the story of Genkai Toppa Oendan. Having better understood the film, they translated several lines from the film that play a crucial role in how the story develops.

The phenomenon of “cheering squads” is unique to Japan. Even students who are avid fans of Japanese media are not all familiar with this idea. Instructors showed the students a few manga titles that revolve around cheering squads to introduce them to the concept. These manga titles feature some interesting vocabulary unique to this setting, such as Koshien (“National High School Baseball Championship”), saikyō (“the ultimate”, “the greatest”), and Shitennō (a word referring to one of the most legendary individuals in a given field).

Next, the students presented the loglines – one-sentence descriptions of a film – that they worked on as part of their homework. They approached this task in different ways. Some came up with loglines like “A cheering squad strives to support the baseball team on their way to victory,” putting the stress on the championship. Others were closer to “Shidō, the protagonist, works to surpass Jinku, the legendary God of Cheering.” Varied opinions led to a fruitful discussion. The students learned that to understand a story they need to focus on who is the main character and what is their drive.

The students, who by then had a deeper understanding of the film, presented their translations of the essential lines which were chosen by the instructors as the next part of their homework. Through the instructors’ feedback, they learned that visual media translation is a challenging field, where direct translation rarely conveys the original meaning. With that knowledge, they will continue to work on their next assignment.

【11/5】まずはCM映像作品の一言から 学生たちの初めての映像翻訳

November 5th: Starting with Commercials, Students Try Visual Media Translation for the First Time

海外大学字幕プロジェクトの第5弾ではゲント大学の学生たちが短編映画『限界突破応援団』の日英字幕翻訳に取り組みます。

教室に集結したおよそ30名の学生たちは、皆日本の映画やアニメ、テレビ番組が大好き。『七人の侍』や『ハウルの動く城』、『君の名は。』といった有名作品以外にも『カウボーイ・ビバップ』『銀魂』『テラスハウス』『ダウンタウンのガキの使いやあらへんで!』など、これまで国内で人気といわれてきた作品も「好きな日本の映像コンテンツ」として挙げられました。

映像翻訳の基本的な考え方を学ぶために、まずは日本のCM映像作品の翻訳に挑戦。ストーリー性のある短い映像の最後に流れる一言を訳す演習では、学生たちは4つのグループに分かれて意見を交換し、丁寧に言葉を選びながら訳を考えました。字幕として映像にのせてみると、映像に込められたメッセージがより伝わる翻訳が完成。学生たちは「映像翻訳とは何を目的としたスキルなのか」を早速つかみました。

続いて、日本のテレビドラマの会話を翻訳する演習へ。学生たちは同じグループでディスカッションを行い、キャラクターに合った言い回しを考えながら訳を作成。講師たちをうならせました。

言葉を丁寧に選べば、作品の世界観を存分に伝えられる映像翻訳。その醍醐味を味わった学生たちは、次回より課題作品の翻訳に着手します。
Students from Ghent University in Belgium will be translating a Japanese short film, Genkai Toppa Ouendan, for the Global Universities Subtitling Project over the course of five classes.

In this class of nearly 30 students, everyone said that they enjoy Japanese content such as films, anime and television shows. Students mentioned various titles, from famous ones such as Samurai 7, Howl’s Moving Castle andYour Name, to relatively lesser-known works such as Cowboy Bepop, Gintama, Terrace House and Downtown no Gaki no Tsukaiya Arahende!, showcasing their love for Japanese media of all types

To understand the basics of visual media translation, the students were first challenged to translate a Japanese commercial that had a story. They were divided into four groups, where they exchanged opinions about appropriate word choices for the translation of the last phrase in the commercial. Once the subtitles were put in, the original message in the visuals was clearly expressed as words on the screen. The students quickly learned what the main goals of visual media translation were through this exercise.

After that, they practiced translating a conversation from a Japanese television drama. In the same groups, they discussed the appropriate phrasing for the characters and translated the lines accordingly, winning praise from the instructors.

In visual media translation, selecting the right words allows one to fully express the message of the original work. After getting a taste of how fun media translation is, the students will be starting on their main subtitling project from the next class.